Feb 12, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – In a ruling that aligns with numerous research studies, a special federal court today rejected claims by three sets of parents that vaccines caused their children’s autism.The US Court of Federal Claims ruled against claims that autism was triggered by measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine or by MMR vaccine in combination with vaccines containing thimerosal.”After careful consideration of all the evidence, it was abundantly clear that petitioners’ theories of causation were speculative and unpersuasive,” wrote the special master (judge) in one of the three decisions.The Court of Claims weighs complaints brought by citizens under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, a federal no-fault program set up in 1986 to reduce the number of lawsuits against physicians and vaccine makers. As of May 2008, more than 12,800 cases had been filed under the program, 5,365 of those related to autism. Since 1988, the program has paid out more than $859 million to a total of 956 claimants, according to Court of Claims documents.According to court documents, today’s decisions came in three test cases based on one of three “causation theories” proposed by parents of children with autism: that MMR vaccines and thimerosal-containing vaccines can combine to cause autism. Thimerosal is a mercury-containing compound that is used as a preservative in some vaccines, including some influenza vaccines. Hearings in the three cases were held in 2007.Federal officials and public health and medical groups welcomed today’s rulings, while saying that the search for the cause of autism must continue.”Hopefully, the determination by the Special Masters will help reassure parents that vaccines do not cause autism,” the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) said in a statement.The statement said HHS “continues to support research to better understand the cause of autistic disorders and develop more effective methods of treatment.”Dr. Paul E. Jarris, executive director of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, said in an e-mailed statement, “We are glad to see that the Court upheld the strong science supporting the safety of vaccines. Unfortunately, we still do not understand the true causes of autism. Parents of children with autism are struggling to find answers and provide their children with adequate care. We urge researchers to redouble their efforts to find a cause and a cure.”The American Medical Association also hailed the rulings, stating: “Autism is a heart-wrenching condition, and the upheaval felt by parents whose children suffer with autism is understandable—as is their search for answers. We need ongoing research into the causes of autism, but cannot let unfounded myths keep us from giving our children the proven protection they need against infectious diseases.”But SafeMinds, an autism advocacy group, criticized the decision, saying the deck is stacked against claimants because HHS funds vaccine safety research and is the defendant in vaccine injury cases.The group commented, “The denial of reasonable compensation to families was based on inadequate vaccine safety science available to the court. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the defendant in vaccine injury cases and is also responsible for carrying out the very vaccine safety research that should be integral to court decisions. This conflict of interest means the deck is stacked against families when they enter ‘vaccine court’ and is yet one more reason for parents to doubt the integrity of the National Immunization Program.”One of the three families involved in the cases decided today claimed that vaccines containing thimerosal can cause immune dysfunction and that MMR vaccine can cause both autism and gastrointestinal dysfunction, according to the decision document. But Special Master George Hastings wrote that the “evidence was overwhelmingly contrary to the petitioners’ contentions.”In another case, parents argued that a combination of thimerosal-containing vaccines and the measles component of the MMR vaccine caused their son to suffer a “pervasive developmental disorder,” similar to autism spectrum disorder. Special Master Denise Vowell wrote that the evidence presented was “voluminous and extraordinarily complex”—but unpersuasive.See also: Autism decision documentshttp://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/sites/default/files/vaccine_files/Hastings-Cedillo.pdfhttp://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/sites/default/files/vaccine_files/Campbell-Smith_Hazlehurst_Decision.pdfhttp://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/sites/default/files/vaccine_files/Vowell.Snyder.pdfUS Court of Claims autism proceeding pagehttp://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/omnibus-autism-proceedingCourt of Claims backgrounder on autism proceedingshttp://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/node/4428Feb 12 HHS news releasehttp://www.hhs.gov:80/news/press/2009pres/02/20090212a.html
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Such miners potentially face another challenging period in 2020 as the Southeast Asian country officially extended in January its DMO policy for another year and as Chinese factories remained closed for a third consecutive month due to the novel coronavirus epidemic. China’s industry accounts for 70 percent of electricity consumption in the world’s second-largest economy.“Weaker power demand and weaker industrial activity [in China] inevitably impacted both domestic production and consumption of thermal coal,” wrote market analyst Gavin Thompson, energy vice chairman for Asia Pacific at consultancy Wood Mackenzie, in a media newsletter on Feb. 4.“Imports are also expected to slow, with reports of Indonesian producers already being asked to delay loadings. The effect on prices though is likely to be muted; prices fell so much through 2019 that globally many producers are already operating at negative margins.”Read also: Coal miner Bukit Asam to invest Rp 4t this year, mostly on infrastructureBukit Asam’s revenues increased 2.9 percent yoy to Rp 21.79 trillion in 2019. The increase was, however, offset by a sharper 12.4 percent increase in production costs to Rp 14.18 trillion.Bukit Asam stocks, traded on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) as PTBA, rose 4.22 percent on Wednesday despite reports of a decline in the company’s profit, higher than the increase in the benchmark Jakarta Composite Index (JCI), which gained 2.38 percent.Bukit Asam president director Arviyan Arifin said the company would aim to be more efficient in all its activities to reduce costs and improve profit margin. He also hoped that prices would also improve in the global market despite the coronavirus outbreak. “We are optimistic that in 2020, hopefully, prices will not be as bad as in 2019,” he said.Furthermore, the coal miner has mitigated losses from a shrinking Chinese market since 2017 by expanding its exports to India, Southeast Asia and Taiwan, among other new markets, said Adib.Meanwhile, Adaro’s financial report shows that sales volume increased 9 percent yoy to 59.19 million tons in 2019. Yet, the company’s revenue dropped 4 percent yoy to $3.46 billion due to falling commodity prices. The miner’s operational costs also rose 3 percent yoy to $2.49 billion.Adaro stocks, traded on the Indonesian bourse as ADRO, rose 5.7 percent on Wednesday, above the JCI’s 2.38 percent.Topics : “We expect 2020 to be a challenging year and we will continue focusing on improving operational performance, mitigating costs and improving efficiency,” said Adaro chief executive officer Garibaldi Thohir in a statement on Wednesday.Read also: Indonesia tightens grip on nickel and coal exportsIndonesia’s coal price reference (HBA) fell 28.2 percent over the course of last year to $66.3 per ton in December 2019 due to declining coal demand in China, Europe and the United States.Indonesian miners say prices were also affected by the government’s domestic market obligation (DMO) policy that required miners to sell a quarter of their production domestically at $70 per ton, which was below market prices in the first half of 2019. A fall in global coal prices as a result of lower demand from main coal buyer China hit the bottom lines of mining heavyweights PT Bukit Asam and PT Adaro Energy in 2019.Bukit Asam’s profit slumped 19.1 percent year-on-year (yoy) to Rp 4.06 trillion (US$286.78 million) in 2019, while Adaro’s profit slumped 3.2 percent yoy to $404.19 million in the same year. The companies’ profits declined as lower commodity prices had offset their higher sales volumes, which had grown 13 percent and 9 percent, respectively.“We, in the coal industry, are very sensitive to prices,” said Bukit Asam commerce director Adib Ubaidillah at a press conference in Jakarta on Wednesday (4/3).